TANDA-TANDA KLINIKAL PENYAKIT WAJIB LAPUR

 

Bil Penyakit Haiwan Umur Zoonotic Status  Syndrome Tanda-tanda klinikal /
 presumtive diagnosis
Gross lesion Diagnosis perbezaan Sample Cara pengesahan Prinsip kawalan
1 African horse sickness# (orbivirus of the family Reoviridae; culicoidesborne) Kuda     FAD   Respiratory form: fever, dyspnea, spasmodic coughing, and dilated nostrils; stands with legs apart and head extended. Congested conjunctiva, swollen supraorbital fossa, death; Cardiac form:  swelling of the supraorbital fossa (pathognomonic), swelling extends to the eyelids, facial tissues, neck, thorax, brisket, and shoulders, death.       virus isolation  
2 African swine fever Babi     Tiada lapuran   Acute: high fever (up to 42C) and death; loss of appetite, depression, and recumbency;  hyperemia of the skin of the ears, abdomen, and legs; respiratory distress; vomiting; bleeding from the nose or rectum; and sometimes diarrhea; abortion. Kronik: emaciation, swollen joints, and respiratory problems.      blood, serum, spleen, tonsil, and gastrohepatic lymph nodes Virus isolation, PCR, ELISA  
3 Anaplasmosis (Anaplasma marginale-tick-borne) lembu     Clinical   Acute: lose condition rapidly, milk production falls, inappetence, breathlessness when exerted, rapid bounding pulse, urine may be brown, fever (41C), mucous membranes appear pale and then yellow, pregnant cows may abort. anemia, RBC count, PCV, and hemoglobin values are all severely reduced Carcass markedly anemic and jaundiced, blood is thin and watery, spleen is enlarged and soft, with prominent follicles, liver may be mottled and yellow-orange, gallbladder is distended and contains thick brown or green bile, hepatic and mediastinal lymph nodes appear brown, serous effusions in body cavities, pulmonary edema, petechial hemorrhages in the epi- and endocardium, severe GI stasis. Bebesiosis, theileriosis, leptospirosis Thin and thick blood smear, blood Microscopic examination of Giemsa-stained thin and thick blood films, hematologic test; ELISA, complement fixation, or card agglutination tests to detect carriers long-acting oxytetracycline, immidocarb; killed vaccine
4 Anthrax# (Bacillus anthracis) pelbagai     Bebas   Mati dengan tiba-tiba; keluar darah dari hidung, telinga, dubur       isolation and identification of Bacillus anthracis  
5 Atropic rhinitis# (Bordetella  bronchiseptica & Pasteurella multocida) Babi     Tiada lapuran   sneezing, coughing; shortening or twisting of the upper jaw       Pengasingan bakteria  
6 Aujeszky's (Pseudorabies) Babi dan lain-lain     Tiada lapuran CNS disorder banyak anak babi mati; tremors and paddling; sneezing and dyspnea        serologic tests or virus isolation and identification  
7 Avian chlamydiosis (Psittacosis, Ornithosis) Unggas   Z     Nasal and ocular discharges, conjunctivitis, sinusitis, green to yellow-green droppings, fever, inactivity, ruffled feathers, weakness, inappetence, and weight loss        isolation and identification of C psittaci   
8 Avian encephalomyelitis (picornavirus) ayam 7-10 hari   Tiada lapuran Tidak boleh bergaeak / unsteadiness Unsteadiness, sitting on hocks, paresis, tidak boleh bergerak     brain, spinal cord, proventriculus, gizzard, and pancreas Pengasingan virus; ujian serology  
9 Avian infectious bronchitis (corona virus) ayam     Klinikal Tracheal rales, batuk, bersin Batuk, bersin, tracheal rales, wet eyes, dyspnea, bengkak muka, tidak membesar, kurang telur, kulit telur nipis     trachea, cecal tonsils, and kidneys Pengasingan virus  
10 Avian leucosis (retroviruses) ayam >14 wk   Tiada lapuran   Inappetence, weakness, diarrhea, dehydration, emaciation, depressed before death, palpation (enlarged bursa and liver), lay fewer eggs.  Tumor on liver, spleen, bursa Marek's   ELISA antibody; check for viral antigens in the albumen of eggs with enzyme immunoassays or by biologic assays for infectious virus  
11 Avian mycoplasmosis (M. synoviae) ayam 4-6 minggu   Tiada lapuran   Slight rales; Lame, depressed and are found around the feeders and waterers; swellings of the hocks and footpads; kurang telur       Isolation and identification, PCR, ELISA  
12 Avian salmonellosis# Ayam     Isolation   Tiada tanda klinikal dalam ayam dewasa; kematain dalam anak ayam     hati, limpa, usus Isolation and identification  
13 Avian spirochetosis ( Borrelia  anserina di bawa oleh kutu) ayam Muda   Tiada lapuran   listlessness, depression, somnolence, moderate to marked shivering, and increased thirst, green or yellow diarrhea with increased urates; pucat, kurang telur     darah Giemsa-stained blood smears; dark field microscopy  
14 Babesiosis pelbagai                    
15 Blackleg (Clostridium chauvoei ) lembu       Sudden death Sudden daeth; Acute lameness and marked depression; edematous and crepitant swellings develop in the hip, shoulder, chest, back, neck, or elsewhere; prostration and tremors, death affected muscle is dark red to black and dry and spongy; it has a sweetish odor and is infiltrated with small bubbles but with little edema. The lesions may be in any muscle, even in the tongue or diaphragm. In sheep, because the lesions of the sponta   samples of muscle Bacterial culture, fluorescent antibody test Bacterian, penicilin
16 Blackquarter# (Clostridium chauvoei) Lembu Muda     Sudden death Bengkak kaki, tempang, monyok, mati     Sampel otot pengasingan bacteria anaerobic Bacterin, penicilin
17 Bluetongue# pelbagai     Jangkitan   Air liur berlebihan, Sukar bernafas, Hingus pekat,  berkerak sekeliling hidung. Bibir dan lidah bengkak, tempang;        Ujian serology; pengasingan virus  
18 Botulism (Clostridium botulinum exotoxin) ayam / itik     Tiada lapuran              
19 Bovine leukosis / enzootic bovine leucosis (oncovirus family retroviridae) Lembu 4-8 years   Tiada?   Bengkak lymphnode, kurang susu     Sera ELISA antibodi Test and slaughter
20 Bovine spongiform encephalopathy#* Lembu   Z Tiada CNS disorder Apprehension (aggressive), hyperaesthesia to touch, sound, light; and ataxia of hind limbs; falling, tremor and abnormal head carriage; generalised weakness, loss of condition, recumbent     whole brain with the brainstem intact Histopathology, electron microscope, immunohistochemistry, immunochemistry Slaughter
21 Bovine viral diarrhoea (Pestivirus in the family Flaviviridae) lembu 6 m-2 yr   Tiada?   Acute: biphasic fever (40C), depression, decreased milk production, transient inappetence, rapid respiration, excessive nasal secretion, excessive lacrimation, and diarrhea; Severe form: high fever ([41-42C), oral ulcerations, eruptive lesions of the coronary band and interdigital cleft, diarrhea;reduced conception rate, abortion erosions and ulcerations of the GI tract, petechial and ecchymotic hemorrhages on the serosal surfaces of the viscera Malignant catarrhal fever, rinderpest Paired serum, tissue (spleen, lymph node, and ulcerated segments of the GI tract), blood, nasal swab demonstration of the virus by PCR, IHC, VI or antigen capture ELISA; antibody ELISA biosecurity, elimination of persistently infected cattle, and vaccination, Screening cattle herds for persistent infection
22 Brucellosis /  Brucella abortus )#* Lembu   Z Jangkitan   Berlaku keguguran, anak dilahirkan lemah, anak dilahirkan mati, lekat uri       isolation and identification of Brucella abortus; serology  
23 Campylobacteriosis (Campylobacter jejuni or C coli)  pelbagai         Diarrhea          
24 Caseous lymphadenitis (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis)  Kambing / bebiri     Clinical   Bengkak kelenjar     Nanah dari bisul Culture of pus Cull emaciated animals & with recurring abscesses 
25 Classical swine fever)#* (pestivirus) Babi     Tiada lapuran   acute: fever, inappetence, and depression, death;Constipation is common, followed by diarrhea; chronic: anorexia, depression, fever, and progressive loss of condition     tonsil, maxillary, submandibular lymph nodes, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, ileum, and kidney, blood, sera.  virus isolation, antigen detection (immunofluorescence, ELISA), PCR, serology  
26 Colibacillosis (Escherichia coli) ayam                    
27 Contagious agalactia (Mycoplasma  agalactiae) Kambing / bebiri     Tiada lapuran   Mastitis, arthritis, keratoconjunctivitis, respiratory disorder     nasal swabs, milk, joint fluid, eye swabs, blood, ear  antibodies: complement fixation test or ELISA; culture  
28 Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia# (Mycoplasma  mycoides   mycoides) Lembu     Tiada Respiratory problem Acute: fever (41.5C), anorexia, painful, difficult breathing, stands by itself in the shade, head lowered and extended, back slightly arched, and elbows turned out; respiration is rapid, shallow, and abdominal. If the animal is forced to move quickly, the breathing becomes more distressed and a soft, moist cough may result; lose condition, and breathing becomes very labored;recumbent and dies after 1-3 wk.  Thoracic cavity contain up to 10 L of clear yellow or turbid fluid mixed with fibrin flakes, organs in the thorax are covered by thick deposits of fibrin; affected lung portion being enlarged and solid (section of the lung, the marbled appearance of pleuropneumonia is evident due to the widened interlobular septa and subpleural tissue that encloses gray, yellow, or red consolidated lung lobules).    Lung ( in formalin & ice), pleural fuid, sera histopathology, detection of organisms in pleural fluid using darkfield microscopy, isolation of the organism from lung or pleural fluid, or demonstration of specific antigens in lung tissue by immunodiffusion or immunofluorescence, complement fixation test Slaughter infected and exposed animals / quarantine, blood testing, and immunization with attenuated vaccine (eg, T1/44 strain) /  vaccination. Rawatan dgn tylosin
29 Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (Mycoplasma  biotype F38) kambing     Tiada lapuran   Weakness, anorexia, cough, hyperpnea, and nasal discharge accompanied by fever (106F [41C]), Exercise intolerance and eventually respiratory distress develop; gross lesion thorax contains an excess of straw-colored fluid, and there is acute fibrinous pneumonia with overlying fibrinous pleurisy. Consolidation is sometimes confined to one lung.       Serology, culture Quarantine of affected flocks
30 Contagious equine metritis# (gram-negative, microaerophilic coccobacillus Taylorella  equigenitalis; venereal) Kuda         Copious, mucopurulent vaginal discharge; early return to estrus     swab from vagina cultured on chocolate Eugon agar at 37C in an atmosphere of 5-10% CO2 in air identification of infected carrier animals and on their treatment (nitrofurazone) or elimination from breeding programs
31 Contagious ophthalmia (Moraxella bovis)  lembu Semua     Sakit mata Nlepharospasm, conjunctivitis, mucopurulent ocular discharge,  corneal opacity and ulceration   IBR Eye swab Microbial culture isolation and preventive treatment of animals newly introduced to the herd; M  bovis  bacterins; Oxytetracycline 
32 Contagious pustular dermatitis (Contagious ecthyma) Kambing / bebiri     Clinical              
33 Cysticercosis (Taenia solium ) Babi                    
34 Dermatophilosis Lembu     Ada              
35 Dourine (Trypanosoma equiperdum) Kuda         mucopurulent discharge from the urethra in stallions and from the vagina in mares, followed by gross edema of the genitalia; plaques 2-10 cm in diameter appear on the skin, and the horse becomes progressively emaciated       ELISA  
36 Duck viral enteritis# (herpesvirus) Itik Adult & young   Tiada lapuran   Sudden high and persistent mortality; adult ducks usually die in higher proportions than young ones, prolapse of the penis, Photophobia, inappetence, extreme thirst, droopiness, ataxia, nasal discharge, soiled vents, and watery or bloody diarrhea may be seen.ducklings frequently show dehydration and weight loss, as well as blue beaks and blood-stained vents. In laying flocks, egg production may drop sharply.      liver, spleen, or kidney Virus isolation, Neutralization with specific antiserum confirms the identity of the virus. Fluorescent antibody test can demonstrate DVE viral proteins, and PCR, using DVE virus-specific primers, can amplify the viral DNA. Differential diagnoses: duck viral hepatitis, pasteurellosis, necrotic and hemorrhagic enteritis, trauma, drake damage, and various toxicoses depopulation, removal of birds from the infected environment, sanitation, and disinfection; vaccination
37 Duck virus hepatitis# (enterovirus in the family Picornaviridae) Itik young duckling   Tiada lapuran   lethargic, lose balance, paddle spasmodically, and die within minutes, typically with opisthotonos; gross lesion: liver is enlarged and covered with hemorrhagic foci up to 1 cm in diameter. The spleen may be enlarged and mottled. Kidneys may be swollen, and renal blood vessels congested.       Virus isolation Vaccinate breeder
38 Eastern equine encephalomyelitis  (arbovirus; vector, Culiseta  melanura  , an ornithophilic mosquito) Kuda     Tiada lapuran              
39 Ebola disease( ebolavirus of the family Filoviridae) primate         Hemorrhagic necrosis of the proximal duodenum          
40 Echinococcosis / hydatidosis (Echinococcus granulosus ) pelbagai                 observation and identification of the E. granulosis in organs or feces  
41 Enterotoxemia (Clostridium pefringens) Bebiri / kambing / lembu         Mati dengan tiba-tiba, mengelupur sebelum mati       vaccination of the pregnant dam during the last third of pregnancy  
42 Enterovirus encephalomyelitis / Teschen disease Babi       CNS disorder            
43 Epizootic lymphangitis (fungus, Histoplasma farciminosum)  Kuda     Tiada lapuran   freely movable cutaneous nodules, which originate from infected superficial lymph vessels and nodes and tend to ulcerate and undergo alternating periods of discharge and closure. Affected lymph nodes are enlarged and hard. The skin covering the nodules may become thick, indurated, and fused to the underlying tissues       microscopic examination of exudates and biopsy specimens Surgical excision of lesions combined with antifungal drugs (amphotericin B) could be used. 
44 Equine coital exanthema (equine herpesvirus type 3); venereal, fomites Kuda         multiple, circular, red nodules up to 2 mm in diameter on the vulvar and vaginal mucosa, the clitoral sinus, and perineal skin; develop into vesicles and then pustules and eventually rupture, leaving shallow, painful, ulcerated areas that may coalesce into larger lesions. Edema can develop in the perineum and may extend to between the thighs       identifying (using electron microscopy) the virus in cells from the margin of ulcers. Typical intranuclear herpesvirus inclusion bodies can also be seen in cytologic or histologic preparations. Acute and convalescent samples for serum neutralization or complement fixation tests can also be diagnostic Affected horses should be isolated until all lesions have healed, and disposable equipment should be used for examinations
45 Equine encephalomyelitis (arbovirus) Kuda   Z   CNS disorder altered mentation, impaired vision, aimless wandering, head pressing, circling, inability to swallow, irregular ataxic gait, paresis and paralysis, convulsions, and death.      Brain, serum virus isolation and identification or by detecting a specific increase in antibody titer between paired acute and convalescent sera. Serology:hemagglutination inhibition, complement fixation, virus neutralization (PRNT), and antibody capture ELISA for IgM  
46 Equine herpes virus (Type 1 and 4) kuda         fever, serous nasal discharge, malaise, cough, inappetence, and/or submandibular or retropharyngeal lymphadenopathy, abortion; gross lesion hyperemia and ulceration of the respiratory epithelium, and multiple, tiny, plum-colored foci in the lungs     nasopharyngeal swab, buffy coat Virus isolation, serologic testing of acute and convalescent sera.characteristic gross and microscopic lesions in the aborted fetus, virus isolation, and demonstration of viral antigen in fetal tissues. Lung, liver, adrenal, and lymphoreticular tissues are productive sources of virus.   
47 Equine infectious anaemia# (lentivirus in the retrovirus family, flies-borne) Kuda         anemia, depression, weight loss, cachexia, and dependent edema; gross lesion:spleen and splenic lymph nodes are enlarged       AGID cogin test; ELISA  
48 Equine influenza# (Orthomyxovirus) Kuda         high fever (up to 106F [41.1C]), serous nasal discharge, submandibular lymphadenopathy, and coughing that is dry, harsh, and nonproductive. Depression, anorexia, and weakness     Nasopharyngeal swabs virus isolation, influenza A antigen detection, or paired serology (hemagglutination inhibition) Vaccination
49 Equine piroplasmosis Kuda                    
50 Equine rhinopneumonitis (Equine herpesvirus type 1) Kuda                    
51 Equine viral arteritis# (togavirus) Kuda       Respiratory, abortion fever, anorexia, and depression; serous nasal discharge, cough, conjunctivitis, lacrimation, and palpebral and periorbital edema, limb edema (especially of the hindlimbs), and edema of the prepuce and scrotum, edema of the ventral body wall, urticarial-type skin reaction on the sides of the neck or head, abortion; congestion, and hemorrhages, especially in the subcutis of the limbs and abdomen; excess peritoneal, pleural, and pericardial fluid; and edema and hemorrhage of the intra-abdominal and thoracic lymph nodes and of the small and large intestine, especially the cecum and colon, Pulmonary edema, emphysema  Equine influenza; infection with equine herpesvirus 1 and 4, equine rhinitis A and B viruses, or equine adenoviruses; and streptococcal infections, with particular reference to purpura hemorrhagica nasopharyngeal and conjunctival swabs and unclotted blood, sera, placenta, lung, lymphoreticular, and other fetal tissues, semen  virus isolation or detection by PCR, microneutralization or a validated ELISA test Vaccination
52 Foot and mouth disease#* pelbagai         Air liur meleleh, tempang, luka di lidah, gusi, celah kuku       Clinical signs; detect FMD virus antigen  
53 Foot-rot (Fusobacterium necrophorum ) pelbagai                    
54 Fowl cholera# (Pasteurella multocida) Ayam/itik     Klinikal   Akut: mati dengan tiba-tiba; depression, anorexia, mucoid discharge from the mouth, ruffled feathers, diarrhea, and increased respiratory rate; Kronik: Sternal bursae, wattles, joints, tendon sheaths, and footpads are often swollen     Darah, hati, limpa, peparu isolation and identification of P multocida  
55 Fowl pox (Avipoxvirus) Ayam         Scabs on the skin of wattle, com and unfeatered area; nodules on mucous membrane of mouth, esophagus, trachea; respiratory distress     Scabs / nodule Inclusions body can be demonstrated in sections of scab / nodule by the use of haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), acridine orange or Giemsa stains; virus isolation  
56 Fowl typhoid (Salmonella gallinarum) ayam     Tiada lapuran   Anak ayam banyak yang mati; huddle near a heat source, are anorectic, appear weak, and have whitish fecal pasting around the vent (diarrhea). In older bird may be pale, dehydrated, and have diarrhea.       isolation and identification of S. gallinarum  
57 Glanders and farcy# (Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) mallei)  Kuda       Respiratory Acute: high fever (41C); thick, mucopurulent nasal discharge and respiratory signs; death ; chronic:debilitating condition with nodular or ulcerative cutaneous and nasal lesions Nasal form: nodules in mucosa of nasal septum &lower parts of turbinates; deep ulcers; star-shaped cicatrices after ulcers heal; Pulmonary form: nodules in lung, pneumonia; Cutaneous from: nodules on extremities, pus   Sera; exudate Mallein test; complement fixation test; ELISA; Culture of exudate from lesions  
58 Goat pox# Kambing     Tiada lapuran   pox lesions          
59 Hantavirus disease Tikus   Z Tiada lapuran Pulmonary Manusia: fever, muscle pain, tired, headaches, dizziness, vomiting, or diarrhea, cough and have shortness of breath, die.          
60 Haemorrhagic septicaemia#* Lembu / Kerbau     Clinical              
61 Heartwater disease (Ehrlichia ruminantium ) pelbagai                    
62 Hendra (Hendravirus / Henipavirus kuda   Z   Respiratory fever (up to 106F [41C]), anorexia, lethargy, elevation in respiratory and heart rates, respiratory distress, pneumonia, and frothy clear to blood-tinged nasal discharge, cyanotic or jaundiced mucous membranes, dependent edema (intermandibular space, cheeks, infraorbital fossae, limbs, prepuce), and neurologic signs (ataxia, muscle fasciculation, head pressing). severe edema and congestion of the lungs and marked dilatation of the subpleural lymphatics. The airways are filled with thick froth, which is often blood-tinged. Additional lesions seen in some affected horses include increased pleural and pericardial fluids, congestion of lymph nodes, hemorrhages in various organs, and slight jaundice African horse sickness, anthrax, botulism, certain bacterial infections (eg, pasteurellosis, equine influenza, peracute equine herpesvirus 1 infection), and plant or chemical poisoning. lung, kidney, spleen, liver, lymph nodes, and brain, sera viral isolation or detection by PCR; neutralization or a validated ELISA slaughtering all known infected horses, imposing movement restrictions within a defined area around affected premises
63 Highly pathogenic avian influenza# Ayam/itik     Bebas   Peracute: sudden death; Acute: cyanosis and edema of the head, comb, and wattle; edema and discoloration of the shanks and feet; blood-tinged oral and nasal discharges; greenish diarrhea; torticollis, opisthotonos, or incoordination.     tarchea, peparu, hati, limpa, usus RT-PCR  
64 Horse Mange (sarcoptic, psoroptic, chorioptic, demodectic kuda         Pruritis, small papules and vesicles that later develop into crusts. Alopecia and crusting spread, and the skin becomes lichenified, forming folds     skin scrapings, skin biopsy Microscopic examination Ivomectin
65 Horse pox kuda                    
66 Ibaraki disease (Ibarakivirus) Deer                    
67 Infectious bovine rhinotracheitis / infectious pustular vulvovaginitis lembu     Tiada              
68 Infectious bursal disease (Gumboro disease; birnavirus) ayam 3-6 week   Klinikal   prostration, incoordination, watery diarrhea, soiled vent feathers, vent picking, and inflammation of the cloaca; high mortality     Bursa virus isolation and identificatin  
69 Infectious coryza (Haemophilus  paragallinarum) ayam     Klinikal   Mild from: depression, a serous nasal discharge, and occasionally slight facial swelling; severe form: swelling of one or both infraorbital sinuses with edema of the surrounding tissue, which may close one or both eyes; the edema may extend to the intermandibular space and wattles; rales kurang telu; diarrhea, and feed and water consumption decrease       Isolation and identification of bacteria  
70 Infectious laryngotracheitis (Avian infectious laryngotracheitis)# herpes virus Ayam     Klinikal   acute form: gasping, coughing, rattling, and extension of the neck during inspiration; kurang telur; anorectic and inactive; mouth and beak may be bloodstained from the tracheal exudate; mortality may reach 50% in adults      tarchea, peparu, hati, limpa virus isolation  
71 Japanese encephalitis# pelbagai                    
72 Jembrana lembu     Tiada              
73 Johne's (paratuberculosis)#* pelbagai         diarrhea, kurus; histopathology and/or serology (AGID) or demonstration of acid-fast organisms in lesions.       demonstration of Mycobacterium paratuberculosis by culture or PCR/DNA probe.  
74 Leishmaniasis (protozoa, leishmania; transmitted by sandflies) dog, rodent     Tiada lapuran   skin lesions (alopecia with severe dry desquamation, ulceration), loss of weight or poor appetite, local or generalized lymphadenopathy, ocular lesions, epistaxis, lameness, and anemia, diarrhea.     bone marrow or lymph node smears, serum microscopic exam, ELISA treat with pentavalent antimony derivatives
75 Leptospirosis pelbagai         icterus, hemoglobinuria, abortion, infertility; fourfold or greater increase of titer in paired serum samples using the Microscopic Agglutination Test       demonstration and identification of the organism (culture, PCR, IHC, FA, silver stain).  
76 Listeriosis lembu     Tidak diketahui              
77 Lumpky skin disease (pox virus) lembu     Tiada              
78 Maedi-visna# (lentivirus family retroviridae) Kambing / bebiri > 4 tahun   Tiada lapuran   Respiratory (maedi): wasting and increasing respiratory distress;  encephalitic (visna): ataxia, muscle tremors, or circling progresses to paresis and eventually to complete paralysis.      lung, brain, sera Histopathology; Serology (AGID, ELISA); virus isolation; PCR serologic testing and removal of positive animals
79 Malignant catarrhal fever lembu     Tidak diketahui              
80 Marburg disease (filovirus family) Primate   Z Tiada lapuran Hemorrhagic fever Manusia: fever, chills, headache, myalgia. maculopapular rash on the trunk (chest, back, stomach), nausea, vomiting, chest pain, a sore throat, abdominal pain, and diarrhea, jaundice, inflammation of the pancreas, severe weight loss, delirium, shock, liver failure, and multi-organ dysfunction.          
81 Marek's disease (herpesvirus) ayam     Klinikal   depression, emaciation; Paralysis, one leg held forward and the other held backward           
82 Melioidosis pelbagai                    
83 Myxomatosis (myxoma virus) Arnab     Tiada lapuran   Peracute: tak mahu makan, murung dan mati; Acute: bengkak conjunctiva, hidung, muzzle, vulva, scrotum dubur, muka, telinga.     Conjunctiva  examine tissue with a microscope for the presence of intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in infected cells. Jangan pindahkan haiwan sakit
84 Nairobi sheep disease (nairobivirus of the family Bunyaviridae); tickborne Bebiri, kambing     Tiada lapuran   fever, depression; anorexia; mucopurulent, blood-stained, nasal discharge; fetid dysentery; bilangan kematian tinggi; induk bunting: gugur     Plasma, mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and serum detection of virus or viral antigen and antibodies.  
85 New world screwworm ( Cochliomyia hominivorax ) pelbagai                    
86 Newcastle disease#* Ayam     Klinikal   lumpuh, mati, berak cair warna hijau          
87 Nipah virus disease (viral encephalitis) Babi                    
88 Old worm screwworm (Chrysomya bezziana) pelbagai                    
89 Ovine chlamydiosis (Enzootic abortion of ewes) Chlamydophila  abortus Bebiri, kambing     Tiada lapuran   keguguran, stillbirth, anak yang lemah     Janin, uri, serum ELISA, fluorescent antibody staining, PCR, or isolation  
90 Peste des petits ruminants (morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae) Kambing / bebiri     Tiada lapuran   fever, restless, dull coat, dry muzzle, congested mucous membranes, depressed appetite, serous to mucopurulent nasal discharge with putrid odor; necrosis on the mucous membrane on the floor of the nasal cavity; congested conjunctiva; profuse catarrhal conjunctivitis; necrotic stomatitis on lower lip and gum; profuse diarrhea; coughing; abortion in pregnant animals; death     unclotted blood, lymph nodes, tonsils, spleen, and whole lung. Viral isolation and identification; Detection of virus-neutralizing antibodies with a rising titer in surviving animals is diagnostic.  
91 Porcine cysticercosis babi     Tiada lapuran              
92 Porcine dermatitis and nephritis syndrome (PDNS) babi                    
93 Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome# (Arteriviridae) Babi         stillborn piglets, mummified fetuses, premature farrowings, and weak-born pigs; Anorexia and agalactia are evident in lactating sows; Suckling piglets develop a characteristic thumping respiratory pattern       ELISA or the indirect fluorescent antibody test, PCR, virus isolation, and immunohistochemistry whole herd depopulation-repopulation, test and removal, and herd closure
94 Post-weaning multisystemic syndrome (PMWS)-porcine circovirus type 2 babi         Wasting, ill thrift, and dyspnea;Pallor, anemia, jaundice, diarrhea, and palpable lymphadenopathy     serum, bronchiolar lavage fluid, or tissue homogenates of lymphoid tissue, kidney, liver, or lung. Viral isolation, serlogy, antigen detection, nucleic acid detection  
95 Pullorum disease / Bacillary white diarrhea (Salmonella pullorum)# Ayam     Klinikal   Anak ayam banyak yang mati; huddle near a heat source, are anorectic, appear weak, and have whitish fecal pasting around the vent (diarrhea).      hati, limpa, usus Pengasingan bakteria, ujian serologi  
96 Pulmonary adenomatosis# (type D retrovirus) Bebiri, kambing     Klinikal   lose weight, respiratory embarrassment, moist rales, forced lowering of the head often causes frothy mucus to run from the nostrils, death.     lung Histopathology removal of all animals showing signs 
97 Q fever pelbagai         abortion, stillbirth; histopathology and/or positive serology (CF, IFA or ELISA).       isolation and identification of Coxiella burnetti (culture, PCR, IHC).  
98 Rabbit hemorrhagic disease (Calicivirus) Arnab     Tiada lapuran   Peracute: mati dengan tiba-tiba; Acute: murung, tak mahu makan, pendarahan palpebral conjunctiva, prostration,  incoordination, excitement, opisthotonos and paddling, convulsions or mania; dyspnea, cyanosis, frothy nasal discharge, lacrimation, ocular hemorrhages, epistaxis,   severe jaundice, weight loss, lethargy,  diarrhea or constipation and abdominal dilatation just before death.            
99 Rabies#* pelbagai       CNS disorder sudden anorexia, signs of apprehension or nervousness, irritability,hyperexcitability, agressive; paralysis       FA test (with or without mouse inoculation) or typical histopathologic lesions (Negri bodies)  
100 Rift Valley fever pelbagai                    
101 Rinderpest (Cattle plague)# pelbagai         Berlaku kematian, Mata dan hidung berair, Air liur berlebihan, Berak cair           
102 Salmonellosis (S. abortusovis) Bebiri     Tiada lapuran   Abortion     placenta, fetus, or uterine discharge Culture  
103 Scrapie (Prion) Bebiri, kambing Dewasa   Tiada lapuran CNS disorder increased excitability, nervousness, or aggressiveness elicited by sudden noise or movement; tremors of the head and neck; convulsions; lack of limb coordination (tendency to move at a trot or hop like a rabbit); drink small quantities frequently, voiding of small quantities of urine; intense pruritus, over the rump, head; fleece is dry, separable, and brittle, resulting in loss of fleece over large areas; emaciation and weakness.      brain Histopathology; immunoblotting to detect abnormal PrP or by electron microscopy to detect abnormal SAF identification and destruction
104 Sheep mange (Sarcoptes  scabiei  var ovis, Chorioptes  bovis, Psoroptes  ovis, Demodex  ovis, Psorergates  ovis Bebiri     Tiada lapuran Alopecia, menggaru Alopecia, menggaru, bersisik     Kikisan kulit dengan glycerol    
105 Sheep pox # Bebiri     Tiada lapuran   pox lesions on skin     Pox lesion virus isolation, EM  
106 Strangles (Streptococcus  equi   equi) Kuda         fever (39.4-41.1C]), mucoid to mucopurulent nasal discharge, depression, and submandibular lymphadenopathy, difficulty swallowing, inspiratory respiratory noise, extended head and neck.      exudate from abscesses or nasal swab samples. Bacterial culture NSAID can be administered judiciously to reduce pain and fever and improve appetite in horses
107 Streptococcosis                      
108 Surra (Trypanosoma evansi - non tetse) Pelbagai (kuda, lembu)       Anemia intermittent fever, anemia, and weight loss, high mortality extensive petechiation of the serosal membranes, especially in the peritoneal cavity, may occur. Also, the lymph nodes and spleen are usually swollen.  Babesia, anaplasmosis, and theileriosis Blood, blood smear demonstrating trypanosomes in stained blood smears or wet mounts; serologic tests measure antibody (for screening) flies control program, treatment
109 Swine erysipelas (Erysipelothrix  rhusiopathiae) Babi     Tiada lapuran   sudden death; Acute: fever, walk stiffly on their toes, lie on their sternums, reluctant to move, squeal when handled, shift weight from foot to foot when standing, anorexia and thirst, skin erythema and purplish discoloration of the ears, snout, and abdomen, to diamond-shaped skin lesions almost anywhere on the body, but particularly the lateral and dorsal parts. tips of the ears and tail may become necrotic and slough.     sera Serology: rising titer in agglutination and complement fixation test Penicillin
110 Swine vesicular disease (enterovirus of the family Picornaviridae) Babi     Tiada lapuran   vesicular lesions on the feet (coronary band),  in the mouth, lips, or snout.     epithelial samples, feces, or serum antigen-detection ELISA, virus isolation, or reverse transcriptase-PCR. antibody-detection ELISA or virus neutralization test.  disinfection with strong alkalis, hypochlorites or acid-containing iodophors 
111 Theileriosis lembu     Clinical              
112 Toxoplasmosis (Toxoplasma gondi) Pelbagai (kucing, bebiri, kambing, babi)   Z     Abortion          
113 Transmissible gastroenteritis# (coronavirus) Babi     Tiada lapuran   anak: muntah, diarrhea; induk bunting: abortion     Usus kecil Histopathology, immunofluorescent  
114 Trichinellosis pelbagai         serologic testing (ELISA).       direct visualization of Trichinela spiralis using either the trichinoscope method or the digestion method.  
115 Trichomonosis lembu     Tidak diketahui              
116 Tuberculosis# lembu     Tiada   progressive emaciation, lethargy, weakness, anorexia, Superficial lymph node enlargement        Skin test, gamma interferon, Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium bovis  
117 Tularemia (Francisella tularensis) pelbagai         serological testing       isolation and identification of Francesella tularensis  
118 Ulcerative lymphangitis (Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis) Pelbagai (kuda, lembu)         Kuda: nodules and ulcers in the region of the fetlock, edematous swelling extend up the entire limb, exudate is odorless, thick, greenish white, and blood tinged.Lembu: ventral lymphadenitis, abscesses, and ulcerative dermatitis          
119 Venezuelan equine encephalomyelitis# kuda                    
120 Vesicular stomatitis pelbagai                    
121 Vibriosis (bovine genital campylobacteriosis) lembu     Tiada   mucopurulent endometritis , early embryonic death, repeat breeding        isolation and identification of Campylobacter fetus ssp venerealis.  
122 West Nile fever pelbagai       CNS disorder recumbency to leg and wing paralysis, reluctant or unable to move, incoordination; serology (>=4-fold change PRNT in paired sera or IgM and PRNT titers in single serum.       virus isolation and identification from tissues, blood, CSF  
123 Western equine encephalomyelitis Kuda       CNS disorder            
124 Yersiniosis (Yersinia enterocolitica) Babi   Z   Diarrhea Human: mild or severe diarrhea, fever and abdominal cramps          
  Avian mycoplasmosis (M. gallisepticum) Ayam         slight to marked rales, difficulty breathing, coughing, and/or sneezing; nasal discharge and frothiness about the eyes may be present; kurang telur       Isolation and identification, PCR, ELISA